Sunday, December 27, 2009

Mari Tangkap Ketam

Mau Mencuba Tangkap Ketam? Ade tips2 nye..

1) Torchlight (white LED lights is recommended)


2) Spear (Bole beli kat kedai memancing.)


3) Besen/bekas nak isi ketam yang ditangkap. Bwak bekas gabus isi ikan tu senang terapung je kat laut and pastikan ade tali, takut dibawak arus laut bekas tu.


4) Plastic beg (Untuk isikan barang2 penting such as mobile phone kalau bwk sekali masa tangkap ketam, NOT RECOMMENDED).


5) Kasut nk msuk dalam laut..kot2 la t'pijak bnda yang tjam2 kat dasar laut tu..kan ke haru.. kasut suvey kat kedai memancing.

Ape kena mengena bulan mengambang dengan ketam?


Mengikut cerita org2 dlu :

1) Mlm tu ketam mengawan. Da kalau ketam mengawan, lembap sket p'gerakannya sbab da berkepit da 2ekor ketam tu..byk la kte dpat ketam...


2) Ketam berisi lebih sket tme2 ni. Puas hati ni penat2 nak tangkap ketam,dapat pulak yang berisi.. auumm.. =P


Ketam besar spe nak??

Kena jln jauh sikit. Puas hati, jauh perjalanan byk ketam dpt ditangkap.. ngee~

Sunday, December 20, 2009

SUKA STRAWBERI?


STRAWBERI KECIL TAPI KAYA KHASIAT



Buah strawberi adalah buah berwarna merah terang yang cantik. Penanaman buah ini memamng banyak diusahakan di kawasan beriklim sejuk. Di Malaysia, Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands adalah pengeluar buah manis masam ini. Strawberi adalah buah yang kaya dengan khasiat. Vitamin C nya adalah unsur terpenting yang ada pada buah ini.


Bahkan khasiat C-nya lebih banyak daripada buah oren. Buah ini membekalkan 20% bekalan asid folik harian yang diperlukan tubuh. Buah ini tiada lemak, tiada kolestrol dan sangat kaya dengan serat. Selain dimakan begitu sahaja, buah strawberi turut diproses menjadi makanan dalam bentuk lain seperti gula-gula, jem dan aiskrim. Walaupun hidangan ini manis-manis belaka tetapi sumber khasiatnya masih terpelihara.


Sumber : RAPI

Tolong Jantung Kita


6 Makanan Elak Sakit Jantung



Penyakit jantung sebenarnya boleh dikawal menerusi pemakanan. Cuma penerangan yang tidak lengkap menjadikan penghidapnya agak sambil lewa dalam hal pemjagaan makanan.


Padahal, risiko penyakit jantung dapat dikurangkan ke paras yang lebih rendah jika pengambilan makanan dikawal dengan baik. Tahukah kamu, peratus kematian wanita muda akibat penyakit jantung telah meningkat sebanyak 30% sejak tahun 1989? Nampaknya penyakit ini boleh menyerang sesiapa sahaja. Disenaraikan enam jenis makanan utama yang paling berpotensi untuk mengurangkan risiko penyakit jantung.



  1. Ikan (boleh mengurangkan penyakit sebanyak 50%). Persatuan Jantung Amerika menyarankan agar anda memakan sekurang-kurangnya dua hidangan ikan dalam masa seminggu. Kajian terkini mendapati makan satu hidangan ikan dalam seminggu mengurangkan sebahagian derita penyakit jantung.
  2. Epal(boleh mengurangkan risiko penyakit sehingga 50%). Sebiji atau dua biji epal sehari juga sangat membantu. Jika anda meminum 12 auns jus epal atau makan dua biji epal sehari. Ia mampu mengurangkan paras oksida kolestrol LDL. Kajian yang dilakukan di Belanda mendapati bahan ‘phytochemicals’ yang ada pada epal berkesan menghalang serangan angin ahmar akibat penyakit jantung.


  1. Walnut (boleh mengurangkan risiko penyakit sehingga 45%). Walnut mengandungi sejenis lemak yang dipanggil asid linolenic. Ia mampu menurunkan paras kolestrol dan menghalang pembekuan darah. Jika anda membiasakan diri dengan memakan walnut, ia mampu mengurangkan jumlah kolestrol sehingga 12% dan kolestrol LDL sebanyak 16%.


  1. Minyak zaitun ( boleh mengurangkan risiko penyakit sehingga 40%) Dalam banyak-banyak minyak masak, minyak zaitun mengandungi 77% lemak tepu yang mampu menurunkan paras kolestrol LDL tanpa mengganggu HDL. Ia juga adalah sejenis antioksida yang sangat berkesan.


  1. Kekacang (boleh mengurangkan risiko penyakit hingga 30%). Satu hidangan kacang panggang mampu menurunkan paras kolestrol sebanyak 10%. Kekacang juga mengandungi sejenis kompaun yang menghalang pembekuan darah dan meningkatkan fungsi pembuluh darah. Bahkan, kekacang adalah sumber folik yang paling baik.

  1. Oat (boleh mengurangkan risiko penyakit hingga 29%) Secawan oat yang dimasak mempunyai kelebihan untuk mengurangkan paras kolestrol dalam darah. Ini kerana oat mengandungi estrak beta glucans, sejenis serat mudah larut. Paling penting, makanlah oat secara konsisten.

Sumber : RAPI

Insomnia

Makanan Pencegah Insomnia


Kepada mereka yang mengalami insomnia atau gangguan tidur, disarankan untuk mengambik susu panas, kerang dan makanan berserat untuk membantu mengatasinya. Menurut David Lavitsky, seorang profesor makanan dari Cornell University Itahca, New York, makan di waktu malam asalkan tidak terlalu kenyang memudahkan tidur kerana makanan menarik aliran darah ke perut.


Terdapat beberapa makanan yang baik untuk membantu mengatasi gangguan tidur. Makanan yang mengandungi asid amino ‘tryotophan’ seperti daging ayam dan susu akan diubah menjadi serotonin di dalam tubuh yang kemudiannya diubah menjadi ‘melatonin’. Kedua-dua asid inilah yang akan membuatkan anda lebih relaks dan mudah mengantuk.


Kekurangan pengambilan makanan yang mengandungi zat besi atau cooper seperti kerang-kerangan juga boleh membuatkan anda sukar tidur. Untuk memenuhi keperluan mineral ini, anda disarankan untuk mengambil sekurang-kurangnya 20 biji kerang sehari. Kurangkan pengambilan kopi, teh, coklat, soda dan minuman beralkohol. Lebih baik anda minum susu panas sebelum tidur untuk membolehkan anda lena sepanjang malam.


Sumber : RAPI

Insomnia

INSOMNIA

I

nsomnia atau sukar tidur terjadi kerana wujudnya rasa letih akibat aktiviti seharian. Biasanya aktiviti penyebab keletihan itu akan berlaku terus menerus (lebih 10 hari). Terdapat tiga jenis gangguan insomnia yang dikenali pasti iaitu susah tidur (sleep onset insomnia), selalu terbangun tengah malam (sleep maintainance insomnia) dan selalu bangun awal (early awakening insomnia). Kebanyakan orang akan mengalami salah satu daripada tiga gangguan ini.


Di Amerika Syarikat, 25% rakyatnya mengalami kesukaran tidur pada waktu malam dan 10% memiliki insomnia kronik. Di seluruh dunia, satu pertiga orang dewasa dikatakan menderita kerana insomnia. Satu pertiga daripadanya pula tergolong dalam insomnia jenis berat.

Penyebab insomnia masih belum dikenal pasti secara terperinci. Tetapi, pakar perubatan percaya ia berkait rapat dengan masalah hormon. Insomnia kerap ditemui pada lelaki berusia sekitar30 hingga 40 tahun.


Secara umumnya, insomnia disebabkan oleh dua perkara, iaitu perubatan dan bukan perubatan. Faktor bukan perubatan merangkumi masalah kejiwaan (seperti tekanan perasaan). Tekanan tersebut berkait rapat dengan masalah keluarga yang terlalu berat atau tekanan bekerja. Bagi yang terlalu ghairah dan mementingkan kesempurnaan dalam kerjaya, mereka adalah golongan yang cenderung diserang insomnia.


Insomnia yang disebabkan oleh faktor perubatan pula berkaitan dengan gangguan kesihatan. Antara tandanya ialah rasa ngilu di bahagian otot dan pencernaan, sesak nafas akibat asma dan sakit jantung. Rasa ngilu di otot sangat mengganggu terutamanya bagi orang yang sedang tidur. Pergerakan ini akan mengaktifkan otak, sehingga otak pun akan tersedar dan anda sukar tidur semula.


Strategi menjemput mimpi


Ubah Situasi


Suasana adalah antara faktor yang membuatkan kita mudah tidur lena. Daripada bergantung kepada ubat-ubatan dan pil yang belum tentu hasilnya, apa kata anda cuba strategi-strategi di bawah untuk tidur lena.


1. Ubah suasana bilik supaya kelihatan abru, menarik dan jiwa anda akan lebih bersemangat untuk berekat. Caranya ialah dengan mengubah kedudukan katil, menukar cadar dan langsir kepada warna yang lebih mendamaikan.


2. Buat satu jadual tidur yang khusus dan patuhi waktunya. Jangan terlalu mengikut kehendak diri seperti leka menonton TV hingga jauh malam atau masih bersama teman-teman.


3. Dalam tempoh dua jam sebelum tidur, minumlah segelas susu. Susu dipercayai mendorong perasaan mengantuk.


4. Ganti tilam atau katil yang sudah terlalu lama digunakan. Mungkin strukturnya sudah tidak berapa baik untuk anda gunakan. Keadaan katil dan tilam yang sebegini ini boleh menyebabkan seseorang sakit tulang belakang dan sukar terlena.


5. Cubalah mandi suam sebelum tidur. Suhu badan begini merangsang tidur seseorang.


6. Hentikan pengambilan alkohol. Minuman ini hanya mengganggu otak yang akhirnya mengganggu pola tidur anda.


7. Luahkan apa-apa perkara menyenangkan yang bakal dilakukan esok hari. Bayangkan seperti ini membuatkan otak lebih relaks dan berfikiran bebas.


8. Matikan lampu bilik, anda tentu lebih nyenyak tanpa diganggu dengan kesan cahaya yang boleh membuka mata.


9. Baca bacaan ringan seperti novel. Cara ini lebih berkesan daripada menonton filem.


10. Jika sukakan muzik, pasanglah irama instrumental yang mendamaikan jiwa.


Ubah Pemakanan


1. Elakkan pengambilan snek sebelum tidur. Sebarang kudap- kudapan tidak seharusnya diambil jika ia telah menghampiri waktu tidur. Jika lapar sangat, minumlah susu panas, telur, badam, ayam dan keju. Kesemua bahan makanan ini sangat kaya dengan asid amino L- tryptophan. Namun, pastikan ia diambil dua jam awal sebelum masa tidur.


2. Teh herba juga adalah pilihan terbaik kerana ia tidak menagndungi kafein. Kandungan semulajadinya mampu merangsang tidur dengan baik. Antara jenis teh yang sesuai ialah chamomile, catnip, anise dan fennel.


J

ika anda sudah merebahkan diri di katil dan masih tidak dapat tidurmselepas setengah jam, jangan memaksa diri lagi. Bangun dan berjalan-jalan di kawasan sekitar rumah. Lakukan aktiviti lain misalnya membaca atau menonton televisyen agar perasaan mengantuk itu boleh dipupuk.


Paling penting, anda jangan panik walaupun mata masih tidak dapat dilelapkan. Jangan asyik melihat jam kerana anda akan dapat merasa lebih terdera kalau menyedari waktu sudah lewat pagi.


Kalau masih gagal tidur, bangun dan tepuk-tepuklah tilam dan bantal. Mungkin strukturnya yang tidak selesa menyebabkan anda sukar tidur. Apa pun, bertemu pakar perubatan adalah jalan paling selamat untuk meredakan masalah insomnia anda.


Sumber : RAPI

Saturday, December 19, 2009

Khasiat Buah Kurma

KHASIAT BUAH KURMA

Kurma adalah sejenis tumbuhan (Palma) atau dikenali dalam bahasa saintifiknya sebagai Phonex dactylifera yang berbuah dan boleh dimakan sama ada yang masak atau yang mentah. Kebanyakan pokok kurma tumbuh di negara-negara Arab dan mempunyai berbagai-bagai jenis. Antara kurma yang terkenal ialah kurma Mekkah dan Madinah yang dikatakan mempunyai berpuluh-puluh jenis. Dikalangan penduduk di negara-negara Arab kurma adalah makanan utama mereka, malah dikalangan orang kita juga kurma sudah menjadi bahan makanan yang digemari. Selain rasanya yang manis dan tahan lama serta tidak perlu dimasak, kurma juga mempunyai khasiat yang banyak dan menjadi makanan utama Baginda Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam.

Diriwayatkan daripada Abdullah bin Jaafar katanya : "Aku melihat Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam memakan buah-buahan dengan kurma masak.

Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam telah menyebutkan tentang khasiat sejenis kurma yang diriwayatkan oleh Imam Bukhari yang bermaksud :

"Diceritakan oleh Jumaah bin Abdullah yang disampaikan oleh Marwan yang mendapat berita daripada Ibnu Hashim bahawa Amir bin Saad mendengar bapanya meriwayatkan Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam bersabda : "Sesiapa yang memakan 7 biji tamar ‘Ajwah’ dia akan terkawal daripada kejutan syaitan dan sihir pada hari itu".

Khasiat kurma "Ajwah" sebagaimana yang tersebut di dalam hadis di atas merupakan satu kelebihan yang dikurniakan Allah Subhanahu Wataala sesuai dengan kemuliannya sebagai jenis kurma pertama yang ditanam sendiri oleh Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam.

Terdapat juga di dalam al-Qur’an ayat yang menyatakan tentang kelebihan buah kurma ini, yang dialami oleh Sayydatuna Maryam ketika beliau mengandung Nabi Isa ‘Alaihi Salam sebagaimana tersebut di dalam surah Maryam ayat 25 :

h_dd26.jpg (19498 bytes)

Tafsirnya : "Dan gocangkan batang kurma itu kepadanya, nanti ia gugurkan atasmu kurma yang masak.

(Surah Maryam : 25)

Ayat di atas menjelaskan tentang khasiat buah kurma kepada kaum wanita yang sedang dalam nifas, bila mana Allah memerintahkan Maryam memakannya sedang beliau dalam keadaan lemah selepas bersalin. Penemuan kajian sains tentang khasiat buah kurma yang kaya dengan unzur zat besi dan kalsium telah membuktikan bahawa perubatan cara Islam yang terkandung di dalam al-Qur’an dan hadis Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam bukanlah jenis perubatan yang semata-mata sesuai dengan keadaan iklim masyarakat Arab sahaja atau sudah ketinggalan zaman, tetapi ia adalah perubatan yang diiktiraf oleh dunia antarabangsa. Malah ia lebih baik daripada ubat-ubatan moden yang menggunakan berbagai campuran dadah yang boleh mengakibatkan kesan sampingan yang lain.

Unsur zat besi dan kalsium yang terdapat di dalam buah kurma adalah unsur yang paling tinggi bagi membentuk susu ibu. Bagi Ibu-ibu yang mempunyai masalah kekurangan susu, maka dengan memakannya dapat menggalakkan pertambahan kandungan susu. Ianya juga berperanan dalam pertumbuhan kanak-kanak damit dan pembentukan darah dan sumsum tulang. Antara kajian lain yang dijalankan membuktikan bahawa kurma antara makanan yang paling pantas diproses sebagai bekalan tenaga. Kurma tersebut akan segera dibakar dan ia akan disalurkan ke bahagian anggota lain dan otak.

Berdasarkan ini juga Baginda Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam menganjurkan kita supaya berbuka puasa dengan buah kurma sebagaimana sabdanya daripada Anas bermaksud :

"Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam berbuka puasa dengan beberapa biji buah kurma sebelum sembahyang. Sekiranya tiada terpadat kurma, maka Baginda Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam akan berbuka dengan beberapa biji anggur. Sekiranya tiada anggur, maka Baginda meminum beberapa terguk air.

(Hadis riwayat Ahmad)

Sehubungan dengan hadis ini ada beberapa hadis lain yang menganjurkan agar kita berbuka puasa dengan kurma. Sebagaimana hadis yang diriwayatkan oleh Anas bin Malik, beliau berkata : "Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasalla berbuka dengan kurma dan barangsiapa yang tidak mendapatkannya maka hendaklah ia berbuka dengan air kerana sesungguhnya air itu pembersih.

Antara hadis lain yang menyatakan kelebihan buah kurma :

h_dd27.jpg (32536 bytes)

Maksudnya : Daripada Adiy bin Hatim, ia berkata : "Saya mendengar Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam bersabda : "Hindarilah api neraka walaupun (dengan memberi sedekah) sebelah buah kurma.

Hadis ini menerangkan kemuliaan buah kurma, iaitu walaupun dengan hanya kita bersedekah sebelah buah kurma kita terhindar daripada api neraka.

Jadi bagi orang-orang yang mementingkan kesihatan mereka agar sentiasa dapat dijaga dengan baik, buah kurma adalah amat sesuai dijadikan sebagai salah satu makanan harian mereka khususnya di waktu pagi sebelum memulakan sebarang tugas harian. Khasiat kurma juga adalah sesuai dan baik bagi pertumbuhan kanak-kanak.

Mudah-mudahan dengan amalan memakan kurma yang berterusan, kita terhindar daripada berbagai kemungkinan dan dapat meneruskan tugas harian serta beribadat kepada Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala.

Sumber : http://permai1.tripod.com/kurma2.html


Thursday, December 17, 2009

JOHOR The Most Southern Point of Asia



JOHOR THE MOST SOUTHERN POINT OF ASIA









The name "Johor" originated from the Arabic word Jauhar, 'gem/precious stone' . However the word johor is also the name of a tree shrub. Malays tend to name a place after natural objects in great abundance or having visual dominance (eg Melaka is named after a type of tree). Before the name Johor was adopted, the area south of the Muar River to Singapore island was known as Ujong Tanah or 'land's end' in Malay, due to its location at the end of the Malay Peninsula. Coincidentally, Johor is the most southern point of the Asian continental mainland.

History

The history of Modern Johor was began in the early 16th century with the foundation of the Sultanate of Johor by the Alauddin Riayat Shah II, the son of Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca who fled from the invading Portuguese in Malacca.His former name, however, was Raja Ali. Johor sultanate is one of the two successor states of the Melaka empire. Upon Malacca's defeat to the Portuguese in 1511, Alauddin Riayat Shah II had established a monarchy in Johor which posed a constant threat to the Portuguese. The Sultanate of Perak was the other successor state of Malacca and was established by Mahmud Shah's other son, Muzaffar Shah I. Johor is the only state, apart from Melaka, that has grown into an empire. During its peak, the whole of Pahang and the present day Indonesian territories of the Riau archipelago and part of Sumatra Island was under Johor's rule.

Modern Johor's establishment was characterised by a series of succession struggles interspersed with strategic alliances struck with regional clans and foreign powers to maintain its political and economic hold in the Straits. In competition with the Acehnese of northern Sumatra and the port-kingdom of Malacca under Portuguese rule, Johor engaged in prolonged warfare with their rivals, often striking alliances with friendlyMalay states and with the Dutch. In 1641, Johor in cooperation with the Dutch succeeded in capturing Malacca. By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepĂ´t, although weakening and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century reduced its sovereignty.

In the 18th century, the Bugis of Sulawesi and the Minangkabau of Sumatra controlled the political powers in the Johor-Riau Empire. However, in the early 19th century, Malay and Bugis rivalry commanded the scene. In 1819, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided up into the mainland Johor, controlled by the Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga, controlled by the Bugis. This is when the history of modern Johor began. In 1855, under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor, control of the State was formally ceded to Dato' Temenggong Daing Ibrahim, with the exception of the Kesang area (Muar), which was finally handed over in 1877. Temenggong Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri (later to become Johor's present-day capital) in south Johor as a major town.

Flag of Johor. The colour blue represents the State Government, the colour red for warriors defending the state, the white crescent and 5-sided star represent the monarchy and Islam.

Temenggong Ibrahim was succeeded by his son, Dato' Temenggong Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor. In 1886, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor (1864-1895) was the one who implemented the state constitution and developed a British-style administration system and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan. For his achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title "Father of Modern Johor".

The increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, creating Johor's initial economic base. The Kangchu system was put in place with the first settlement of Kangkar Tebrauestablished in 1844. The decline of the Kangchu economy at the end of the 19th century coincided with the opening of the railway line connecting Johor Bahru and the Federated Malay States in 1909 and the emergence of rubber plantations throughout the state. Under theBritish Resident system, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar's successor, was forced to accept a British adviser in 1904. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor. From the 1910s to the 1940s, Johor emerged as Malaya's top rubber producing state, a position it has held until recently. Johor was also until recently the largest oil palm producer in Malaysia.

During World War II, Johor Bahru became the last city on the Malay peninsula to fall to the Japanese. General Yamashita Tomoyuki had his headquarters on top of Bukit Serene and coordinated the downfall of Singapore.

Johor gave birth to the Malay opposition which derailed the Malayan Union plan. Malays under Dato' Onn Jaafar's leadership formed the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in Johor on 11 May 1946. (UMNO is currently the main component party of Malaysia's ruling Barisan Nasional coalition.) In 1948, Johor joined the Federation of Malaya, which gained Independence in 1957.

State Anthem

The Johor state anthem is called "Lagu Bangsa Johor".

Allah peliharakan Sultan
'Nugerahkan dia
Segala kehormatan
Sihat dan ria
Kekal dan makmur
Luaskan kuasa
Naungkan kami
Rakyat dipimpini
Berzaman lagi
Dengan merdeka bersatu hati
Allah berkati Johor
Allah selamatkan Sultan.


Geography

Johor is the 5th largest state by land area and 3rd most populated state in Malaysia, with a total land area and estimated population of 19,984 km2 and 3,300,000 respectively.

In the official census of 2000, the population of Johor was 2.75 million with 54% Malays, 35% Chinese, 7% Indians and 4% others. It is the southernmost state in Peninsular Malaysia, and is located between the 1°20"N and 2°35"N latitudes. The highest point in Johor is Gunung Ledang (1276 m). Gunung Ledang is also known as Mount Ophir. Johor also has a 400 km coastline on both the East and the West coasts.

Johor has 8 large islands with numerous smaller ones, namely Pulau Aur, Pulau Besar, Pulau Dayang, Pulau Lima, Pulau Pemanggil, Pulau Rawa, Pulau Sibu, Pulau Tengah and Pulau Tinggi.


Climate

Johor has a wet equatorial climate with monsoon rain from November until February blowing from the South China Sea. The average annual rainfall is 1778 mm with average temperatures ranging between 25.5 °C (78 °F) and 27.8 °C (82 °F). Humidity is between 82 and 86%.

On 19 December 2006, a continuous heavy downpour occurred in Johor, which led to the 2006-2007 Malaysian floods. Many towns such asMuar, Kota Tinggi and Segamat were seriously flooded with water levels as high as 10 feet (3.0 m) above ground level recorded in some areas. 15 lives were lost and many possessions destroyed, and this resulted in huge financial losses in Johor. More than 100,000 victims were evacuated to flood relief centres.


Links to Singapore

Malaysia's new Customs Complex (Sultan Iskandar Complex) at Johor Bahru
The water pipeline at the causeway which provides much of Singapore's water supply.

Johor is linked to Singapore via two road connections: the Johor-Singapore Causeway and the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link. The Causeway also carries a railway line, which is now part of the main rail route linking Singapore with Thailand via Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Butterworth.

The Johor-Singapore Causeway (length: 1038 m) was designed by Messrs Coode, Fizmaurice, Wilson and Mitchell of Westminster, while the construction contract was awarded to Topham, Jones & Railton Ltd ofLondon. It started in 1909 as a railway link by Johor State Railway to connect Johor Bahru to Singapore, then the administrative headquarters of British interests in South-East Asia. Construction of the road section started in 1919 and was completed in 1923.

The causeway has been a source of contention ever since Singapore seceded from Malaysia in 1965. Stagnating water caused by the Causeway has raised health concerns in Johor. Malaysia proposed to replace the causeway with a bridge, allowing water, tide movement and ship movement from Pasir Gudang, the older port in Johor to the new port in Gelang Patah through the Straits of Johor. Singapore rejected this proposal, after which Malaysia came up with the idea of what became known as "the crooked half-bridge", 25m above water level, and descending halfway to link up with the low-level causeway. The railway was to have a swing bridge. The scheme was part of the Gerbang Selatan Bersepadu project. It had been previously announced that the bridge project would go ahead, even without the agreement of the Singaporean government. The bridge would become a straight bridge if the Singaporean government accepted the project. Construction work on the bridge stopped, however, on the orders of the former Prime Minister, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, who cited the unwillingness of Malaysia to sell sand and allow the use of Malaysian airspace by Singapore as a return for Singaporean consent to the bridge's construction.

Animosity between previous leaders of both countries has abated with the rise of new leaders, Abdullah Badawi as Malaysian Prime Minister replacing Mahathir Mohamad and Lee Hsien Loong in Singapore replacing Goh Chok Tong. It has renewed talks and improved relations between countries.

Some analysts have concluded that replacing the causeway with a bridge would allow a creation of a comprehensive port system linking Johor Port and Tanjung Pelepas Port in Johor; some go on to suggest that this presents a threat to Singapore's port activity, thus explaining the initial reluctance of Singapore to agree to the causeway's replacement.

The second road connection, the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link, was completed in October 1997; the link consists of a 1920 m twin-deck bridge supporting a dual-three lane carriageway linking Kampong Ladang in Tanjung Kupang, Johor, to Jalan Ahmad Ibrahim in Tuas, Singapore.


Government and politics

Monarchy

Sultan's Palace in Johor Bahru

Johor is a constitutional monarchy. Johor was the first state in Malaysia to adopt the constitutional monarchy system via Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor (Johor State Establishment Constitution) written by Sultan Abu Bakar. The constitutional head of Johor is the Sultan. This hereditary position can only be held by a member of the Johor Royal Family, who is descended from Sultan Abu Bakar. The State's Sultan since 1981 has been Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj.

Johor was the first state and currently the only state in Malaysia that has its own military force called Johor Military Force or 'Timbalan Setia Negeri'. It is a private army of the Sultan of Johor located at Johor Bahru City.


State government

The state government is headed by the Chief Minister or Menteri Besar. The current Chief Minister is Dato' Abdul Ghani Othman, a former civil servant. The Chief Minister is assisted by 10 members executive council (exco), whose members are selected from the state assembly members.

The legislative branch of Johor's government is the Johor State Assembly. The state assembly makes laws in matters regarding the state. Members of the Assembly are elected by citizens every five years by universal suffrage.


Districts

The State of Johor is divided into the districts of:

  • Johor Bahru 1817.8 km², population 1,370,738 (2005)
    • Majlis Bandaraya Johor Bahru (Abbreviation as MBJB or City Hall of Johor Bahru. It is includes area of Johor Bahru Downtown, Tampoi, Pelangi, Pasir Pelangi, Rinting, Tasek Utara, Pandan, Permas Jaya, Kangkar Tebrau, Kempas, Larkin, Majidee, Mount Austin, Kawasan Tebrau) (website: http://www.mbjb.gov.my)
  • Pontian 919.5 km², population: 160,722 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Pontian
  • Kota Tinggi 3488.7 km², population: 212,558 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Kota Tinggi
  • Kluang 2851.8 km², population: 295,373 (2005)
    • Majlis Perbandaran Kluang (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kluang Utara)
    • Majlis Daerah Simpang Renggam (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kluang Selatan)
  • Segamat 2851.26 km², population: 198,142 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Segamat (Majlis Daerah Segamat Utara) (Covered area of Jementah, Buloh Kasap, Batu Enam and Gemas Baharu)
    • Majlis Daerah Labis (previously known as Majlis Daerah Segamat Selatan) (Covered area of Tenang Station, Chaah, Bekok and Pekan Air Panas)
  • Muar 2346.12 km², population: 373,587 (2005)
    • Majlis Perbandaran Muar (previously known as Majlis Daerah Muar Selatan) (Covered area of Bukit Pasir, Bukit Bakri, Parit Jawa, others)
  • Ledang 970.24 km², population: 58,501 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Tangkak (previously known as Majlis Daerah Muar Utara)(Covered area of Bukit Gambir, Sagil, Serom, Kesang, others)
  • Batu Pahat 1878 km², population: 382,175 (2005)
    • Majlis Perbandaran Batu Pahat (previously known as Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Barat)(The capital of the district is Batu Pahat (city),also known as Bandar Penggaram)
    • Majlis Daerah Yong Peng (previously known as Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Timur)
  • Mersing 2838.6 km², population: 73,920 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Mersing


Economy

Iskandar Malaysia

The Iskandar, Johor (also known as Iskandar Development Region and South Johor Economic Region), encompassing Johor Bahru,Johor Bahru Tengah, Kulaijaya, Pasir Gudang and Nusajaya is a major development zone in Johor. It is named after the present sultan, Iskandar Al-haj. At 2215 km², it is two-and-a-half times bigger than Singapore and 48 times the size of Putrajaya. It is intended to draw investment and business to Johor and will be among the biggest development projects in Malaysia. As part of the project, the state administrative capital will be moved to Nusajaya.


Education

Kolej Matrikulasi Johor campus inTangkak

Johor has several institutions of higher learning. It has three universities, namely Universiti Teknologi Malaysia situated in Skudai, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat (UTHM),Universiti Teknologi MARA Johor ( UiTM) in Segamat and several polytechnics. Johor also has a teaching college called Maktab Perguruan Temenggung Ibrahim. It has one non-profit community college calledSouthern College situated in Skudai. Southern College was established in 1990 owing to the generous support from the communities. It is the first non-profit community college in the country wholly funded by public donation and is open to Malaysian students of all races.

Johor Education Foundation (Yayasan Pelajaran Johor) also establish tertiary education oppurtunity in Johor state. It offers studies from various field such as engineering, business, economics & hospitality for all Malaysian as well as qualified students from anywhere around the world.

At the primary level, Muslim Johorean students are required to attend Islamic religious school in addition to national school. Many Malay Johoreans have competent skills in Jawi script, the official script in Johor since 1885, which is still used in Islamic religious and Malay cultural matters.


Transportation hubs

Ports

Johor has three ports, the Pasir Gudang Port, the Port of Tanjung Pelepas and the Tanjung Langsat Port.


Airports

Johor has one international airport (30 km away from JB city centre), The Sultan Ismail International Airport in Senai (01’38’26’ N, 103’40’13’ E). It was opened on 6 June 1974 and has been expanded several times since. Currently, it has a 5-million passenger capacity, with a parallel taxiway under construction.

The airport is a regional hub of AirAsia, a regional low-cost no-frills airline. Malaysia Airlines also operate flights from Senai airport to some local and international destinations.


Tourism

Major tourist attractions

Among the popular tourist destinations in Johor are:

  • Tebrau - Arulmigu Sri RajaKaliamman Glass Temple- The Worlds first Hindu Glass Temple
  • Desaru - beaches & golf courses along the South China Sea
  • Johor Bahru - shopping, night market, colonial/royal district
  • Endau Rompin National Park - pristine jungle
  • Kota Tinggi 34 meter waterfall.
  • Kukup - a fishing village with seafood restaurants built over water
  • Muar - picturesque riverside town
  • Seribuat Archipelago - islands with beautiful beaches, coral reefs
  • Tanjung Piai - the southernmost tip of mainland Asia
  • Danga Bay - The new waterfront city
  • Pekan Air Panas - hot springs, waterfall, local fruits available
  • Bandar Nusajaya - new administration of Johor Government
  • Pulau Dayang - major diving attraction, snorkeling, fishing
  • Gunung Ledang - legendary mountain/highest peak in South of Peninsula Malaysia, famous of mountain hiking
  • Ayer Panas Waterfall - Malaysian "Jiu Zai Kou" with crystal clear water from the peak of Gunung Ledang
  • Tangkak - hometown of famous "Tangkak Beef Noodle", shopping paradise for fabric, served best handmade noodle in the world
  • Pulau Kukus - This island is close to Pulau Sibu Tengah and popular for snorkeling activity


National parks and forest reserves

Johor is also noted for its national parks. Johor currently has five national parks, with a combined area of more than 700 km² and several smaller recreational forest. Almost all recreational parks are based around a mountain. Johor also has the third largest mangrove forest reserve in Peninsular Malaysia (167 km²).


Mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Dijulang


Culture

The culture of Johor is influenced by visitors and traders throughout history. A major influence was the Bugis - who first set foot in Malaysia in Johor before continuing on to Melaka, Linggi, Selangor, Pahang and Terengganu - Javanese and the Arabs. They had a powerful impact on the politics of Johor, Pahang, Terengganu and Selangor. The strong Arab influence is apparent in art performances like Zapin and Hamdolok, musical instruments like gambus. Other visible legacies in Johor Bahru are the Arabic names of places such as Wadi Hana and Wadi Hassan in areas populated by the Arab community from Hadhramaut in the southeast of Yemen. Wadi means valley in Arabic.


Language

The Johorean' s Malay, also known as Johor-Riau Malay and originally spoken in Johor, Riau, Malacca and Singapore, has been adopted as the basis for both the Malaysian and Indonesian national languages, Malay and Indonesian, respectively. Due to Johor's location at the confluence of trade routes within and without the Malay Archipelago, as well as the former economic might and influence of Malacca and Johor, the dialect spread as the region's lingua franca since the 15th century; hence the adoption of the dialect as the basis for the national languages.


Clothing

  • Cekak Musang and Teluk Belanga are types of collar design for the male garment 'baju melayu'. It is said that Teluk Belanga was designed by Sultan Abu Bakar in 1866 to commemorate the shift of Johor's capital from Teluk Belanga to Johor Bahru. The Teluk Belanga design is a simple hemmed round collar with a stiff stitching called 'tulang belut' or 'eel's spine', with a loop at the end to fit a 'kancing'. This collar design creates an exposed neck in contrast to the neck-covering Cekak Musang design that is a raised stiff collar of about 1-2 cm with an opening down to the chest. The collar ends have matching holes to fit buttons.[8]
  • Kurung Johor
  • Kurung Riau
  • Belah kebaya panjang


Songs

Tanjung Puteri is the song most commonly associated with Johor.

Tanjung Puteri

Tambak Johor Tanjung Puteri

Selat Tebrau airnya biru

Di Pantai Lido tepian mandi

Sepanjang masa di hari minggu

Atas bukit Tanjung Puteri

Taman hiburan indah berseri

Pemandangan menawan hati

Jalan tambak hubungan negeri

(chorus)

Tanjung Sekijang nun di kuala

Tempat nelayan mengail gelama

Istana Hinggap di Kuala Danga

Pantai berkelah keluarga diRaja

Dari Tebrau orang berakit

Singgah Stulang membeli kopi

Pusara si Bongkok di lereng bukit

Di tepi pantai Tanjung Puteri


Dances


Zapin dance

Zapin is a dance form which is popular in Malaysia, especially in the state of Johor. It is believed to have been introduced by Muslim missionaries from the Middle East in the 14th century.

In the old days only males were allowed to perform it, but nowadays female dancers are included. It used to be performed exclusively for religious ceremonies but through the years it has become a form of traditional entertainment.

The dancers usually perform in pairs and are accompanied by a traditional music ensemble normally consisting of the gambus, accordion, violin, marwas (bongos), rebana (drum) and dok.

There are various types of Zapin in Johore namely Zapin Melayu, Zapin Pekajang, Zapin Tenglu, Zapin Pulau, Zapin Parit Mastar, Zapin Lenga and so on. These variants are caused by the districts and on how the dance is performed.


Kuda Kepang

Kuda kepang is a dance or game performed by Johoreans, especially of Javanese descent. Kuda kepang is a legless horse-shaped puppet that is straddled by the performers. Usually, a troupe of performers consists of 10 to 15 people. It is performed at wedding ceremonies and cultural celebrations. There are several possible origins of Kuda Kepang. It is said to derive from the struggles of “Wali Songo”, a group of nine Islamic preachers in Java. Others said it originated from the movement of horses commanded by Ali, the fourth Muslim Caliph. There are several dance rhythms or patterns: the 'Sola', 'Selendang', 'Pak Tani', 'Pucuk Rebung', 'Perjuangan', and 'Mempertahankan Diri'. The bobbing movement of the performers and their horse puppet is called 'Lenggang Kiprah'.

The musical instruments used in kuda kepang performance are 'angklong', 'gendang', 'gong', 'kinong', 'jidor', 'soron kecil' and 'bonang'.

Legends


Legend of Badang

This is a story of Badang, a slave who gained super human strength by eating the vomitous of a river spirit. He used this to win his release from his master. Contrary to popular belief, Badang was born in Sayong Pinang, Johor, not Singapore or Temasik as it was known then. Upon hearing his strength, he was summoned by the Seri Rama Wira Kerma of Temasik where he displayed his skills. Challengers were sent by foreign kingdoms to defeat him. Among them were King of Kalinga I from India who sent Nadi Bijaya Pikrama, a fierce wrestler, and the noblemen of Perlak who sent Benderang. Badang emerged victorious from both fights and eventually stayed in Temasik until his death.


Legend of Malim Deman

Malim Deman is a king in Segamat who was in love with Princess Santan Bertapis. The princess was kidnapped by a spirit and Malim Deman swore that as long as the princess is not returned, the Segamat area shall experience floods for all eternity. However, with modern town planning and irrigation, flooding is now a rare occurrence in Segamat.


Legend of Gunung Ledang

See main article Legend of Gunung Ledang


Awang's spear returned to Dayang

Lembing Awang Pulang ke Dayang (Awang's spear Returned to Dayang) is an incident that occurred in Parit Raja, Muar.

It occurred in 1776 when a man called Awang returned to Padang (now known as Parit Raja, Muar) after more than 3 years abroad to marry his fiancee Dayang. Upon his return, he found out that another man called Bachok @ Pa'achok had told Dayang of Awang's death and she was to be married to him the next day. Awang showed up at the wedding and using a twin spear given by Raja Bugis, he speared Bachok in the stomach. Bachok, fatally injured, grabbed the spear in his stomach and speared his best man. The man then speared the next man he saw and this was repeated until the 99th person was speared. It was Dayang's father who was protecting Dayang. He did not continue the repeated spearing and died. Awang ran away to Endau and Dayang did not marry another until she died.


Hamdolok

Hamdolok originated from the exposure of Middle East culture introduced by Arabs in Johor. It is a traditional theatre performed during weddings and festivals. It is a blend of artistic characters of both the Middle-East and local Malay communities. Instruments used include the gambus,tambourine, maracas and conga drums. It was also inspired by the Bedouin celebrating the birth of Islamic prophet Muhammad playing musical instruments and reciting poetry.


Cuisine

Dishes and cuisine in Johor are influenced by Arabs and the surrounding Malay archipelago. Some of the dishes are a unique blend of ingredients not found anywhere else in Malaysia. Due to their difficult and sometimes complicated recipes, some can only be sampled during celebrations and state banquets.

  • Laksa Johor is a cuisine originated from Johor. It differs from Laksa Penang by having coconut milk added during cooking. It also differs from other laksas by using spaghetti instead of rice-based noodles.
  • Mee Bandung Muar is also a dish originated from Johor, specifically from Muar. The term 'bandung' is not derived from Bandung, Indonesiabut is a term for anything that is mixed from many ingredients. One of the most important ingredient is dried shrimp.
  • Penganan Kacau keledek is a dessert normally reserved for the Johor monarch and elites. It is made from sweet potatoes, a lot of eggs (at least 40), fresh coconut milk (not instant ones) and huge amounts of sugar. It is mixed together and stirred on a simmering heat for at least 4 hours.
  • Mee rebus is the famous noodle dish which consists of Mee (a spaghetti like mixture of flour, salt and egg) and is served with a tangy, spicy brown sauce. Usually crumbs and boiled eggs are added.
  • Arisa - A unique chicken dish that is very rare nowadays, and is normally served to the royalties and social elites of Johor at formal functions and celebrations.
  • Satay - is a popular food in Malaysia. Made from marinated meat or chicken and burnt on charcoal grill. Cooked satay is dipped in special peanut sauce. A favourite Malay food in Johor, mostly found in Johor Bahru and Muar.
  • Telur pindang - Eggs boiled together with herbs and spices, popular during wedding feasts in Johor.
  • Roti Jala or Roti Kirai(Wendy Li) - The name is derived from the Malay word 'roti' (bread) and 'jala' (net). A special ladle with a five-hole perforation used to make the bread looks like a fish net (picture in the works). It is usually eaten spicy with curry or sweet with 'serawa'. Serawa is made from a mixture of boiled coconut milk, brown sugar and pandan leaf.
  • Nasi Beriani Gam - A biryani rice dish originating from India with a cooking method very similar toHyderabad biryani but with spices adjusted to suit the Malay palate. This dish is very popular in Batu Pahat District.
  • Kacang Pol- This dish is influenced by Arab Culture where special baked bread was served with special sauce and a 'sunny side up' egg.
  • Pisang Salai or Gimpi smoked banana cooked into perfection
  • Otak-otak - Steamed/Grilled fish cake usually served wrapped in sticks of coconut leaves. Two of the most popular varieties are Otak-otak Muar (spicy) and Otak-otak Gelang Patah (sweet).
  • Mee Soto - This Indonesian origin food is very popular in Johor. People may have change noodles with rice or vermicelli rice according to their preference. Combination of either noodle, rice or vermicelli rice is added with peanut, beansprout and chicken meat. These combination then is poured with special soup. This soup was made from chicken stock and some other spice. Enjoy it while its hot.
  • Mee Bakso - This is almost identical with soto, only this dish have meatball instead of slices of chicken meat.
  • Burasak - It is a type of Buginese food.
  • Halwa Maskat This dessert type food may be originated from muscat, Oman.
  • Kerutup ikan - Fish is steamed with variety of local fragrant leaves.
  • Pecal - It is a Javanese traditional cuisine which consists of long beans, slice of cucumber, beansprout, tauhu, tempe mix with special peanut sauce.
  • Tauhu bakar- it is made from soybean where it is burnt on a grill and cut into cubes and dip with special sauce.
  • Pendaram
  • Mee Siput - It is a mixture of flour that will expand in term of size when deep fried.
  • Rojak Petis - It is a combination of local vegetables mix with special black colored sauce made mostly from shrimp(Otak Udang).
  • ABC - ABC is abbreviation of 'Air Batu Campur' or known as Ice Kacang Johor. It is a special desserts created from shaved ice added with corn, jelly, redbeans, groundnut, syrup, pasteurized milk, and liquid chocolate.


Javanese-influenced cuisine

There are a few Johorean dishes with Javanese influences. These include lontong, nasi ambeng and bontrot or berkat - both traditionally served after feasts like wedding ceremonies, Yasinan and others; and ungkep.

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